Implied Volatility in Merton’s Jump Diffusion Model

The “implied volatility” corresponding to an option price is the value of the volatility parameter for which the Black-Scholes model gives the same price. A well-known phenomenon in market option prices is the “volatility smile”, in which the implied volatility increases for strike values away from the spot price. The jump diffusion model is a generalization of Black\[Dash]Scholes in which the stock price has randomly occurring jumps in addition to the random walk behavior. One of the interesting properties of this model is that it displays the volatility smile effect. In this Demonstration, we explore the Black-Scholes implied volatility of option prices (equal for both put and call options) in the jump diffusion model. The implied volatility is modeled as a function of the ratio of option strike price to spot price.


Option Prices in the Variance Gamma Model


Range-Based EGARCH Option Pricing Models (REGARCH)

The research in this post and the related paper on Range Based EGARCH Option pricing Models is focused on the innovative range-based volatility models introduced in Alizadeh, Brandt, and Diebold (2002) (hereafter ABD).  We develop new option pricing models using multi-factor diffusion approximations couched within this theoretical framework and examine their properties in comparison with the traditional Black-Scholes model.

The two-factor version of the model, which I have applied successfully in various option arbitrage strategies, encapsulates the intuively appealing idea of a trending long term mean volatility process, around which oscillates a mean-reverting, transient volatility process.  The option pricing model also incorporates asymmetry/leverage effects and well as correlation effects between the asset return and volatility processes, which results in a volatility skew. 

The core concept behind Range-Based Exponential GARCH model is Log-Range estimator discussed in an earlier post on volatility metrics, which contains a lengthy exposition of various volatility estimators and their properties. (Incidentally, for those of you who requested a copy of my paper on Estimating Historical Volatility, I have updated the post to include a link to the pdf).

We assume that the log stock price s follows a drift-less Brownian motion ds = sdW. The volatility of daily log returns, denoted h= s/sqrt(252), is assumed constant within each day, at ht from the beginning to the end of day t, but is allowed to change from one day to the next, from ht at the end of day t to ht+1 at the beginning of day t+1.  Under these assumptions, ABD show that the log range, defined as:

is to a very good approximation distributed as

where N[m; v] denotes a Gaussian distribution with mean m and variance v. The above equation demonstrates that the log range is a noisy linear proxy of log volatility ln ht.  By contrast, according to the results of Alizadeh, Brandt,and Diebold (2002), the log absolute return has a mean of 0.64 + ln ht and a variance of 1.11. However, the distribution of the log absolute return is far from Gaussian.  The fact that both the log range and the log absolute return are linear log volatility proxies (with the same loading of one), but that the standard deviation of the log range is about one-quarter of the standard deviation of the log absolute return, makes clear that the range is a much more informative volatility proxy. It also makes sense of the finding of Andersen and Bollerslev (1998) that the daily range has approximately the same informational content as sampling intra-daily returns every four hours.

Except for the model of Chou (2001), GARCH-type volatility models rely on squared or absolute returns (which have the same information content) to capture variation in the conditional volatility ht. Since the range is a more informative volatility proxy, it makes sense to consider range-based GARCH models, in which the range is used in place of squared or absolute returns to capture variation in the conditional volatility. This is particularly true for the EGARCH framework of Nelson (1990), which describes the dynamics of log volatility (of which the log range is a linear proxy).

ABD consider variants of the EGARCH framework introduced by Nelson (1990). In general, an EGARCH(1,1) model performs comparably to the GARCH(1,1) model of Bollerslev (1987).  However, for stock indices the in-sample evidence reported by Hentschel (1995) and the forecasting performance presented by Pagan and Schwert (1990) show a slight superiority of the EGARCH specification. One reason for this superiority is that EGARCH models can accommodate asymmetric volatility (often called the “leverage effect,” which refers to one of the explanations of asymmetric volatility), where increases in volatility are associated more often with large negative returns than with equally large positive returns.

The one-factor range-based model (REGARCH 1)  takes the form:

where the returns process Rt is conditionally Gaussian: Rt ~ N[0, ht2]

and the process innovation is defined as the standardized deviation of the log range from its expected value:

Following Engle and Lee (1999), ABD also consider multi-factor volatility models.  In particular, for a two-factor range-based EGARCH model (REGARCH2), the conditional volatility dynamics) are as follows:

and

where ln qt can be interpreted as a slowly-moving stochastic mean around which log volatility  ln ht makes large but transient deviations (with a process determined by the parameters kh, fh and dh).

The parameters q, kq, fq and dq determine the long-run mean, sensitivity of the long run mean to lagged absolute returns, and the asymmetry of absolute return sensitivity respectively.

The intuition is that when the lagged absolute return is large (small) relative to the lagged level of volatility, volatility is likely to have experienced a positive (negative) innovation. Unfortunately, as we explained above, the absolute return is a rather noisy proxy of volatility, suggesting that a substantial part of the volatility variation in GARCH-type models is driven by proxy noise as opposed to true information about volatility. In other words, the noise in the volatility proxy introduces noise in the implied volatility process. In a volatility forecasting context, this noise in the implied volatility process deteriorates the quality of the forecasts through less precise parameter estimates and, more importantly, through less precise estimates of the current level of volatility to which the forecasts are anchored.

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2-Factor REGARCH Model for the S&P500 Index

On Testing Direction Prediction Accuracy

As regards the question of forecasting accuracy discussed in the paper on Forecasting Volatility in the S&P 500 Index, there are two possible misunderstandings here that need to be cleared up.  These arise from remarks by one commentator  as follows:

“An above 50% vol direction forecast looks good,.. but “direction” is biased when working with highly skewed distributions!   ..so it would be nice if you could benchmark it against a simple naive predictors to get a feel for significance, -or- benchmark it with a trading strategy and see how the risk/return performs.”

(i) The first point is simple, but needs saying: the phrase “skewed distributions” in the context of volatility modeling could easily be misconstrued as referring to the volatility skew. This, of course, is used to describe to the higher implied vols seen in the Black-Scholes prices of OTM options. But in the Black-Scholes framework volatility is constant, not stochastic, and the “skew” referred to arises in the distribution of the asset return process, which has heavier tails than the Normal distribution (excess Kurtosis and/or skewness). I realize that this is probably not what the commentator meant, but nonetheless it’s worth heading that possible misunderstanding off at the pass, before we go on.

(ii) I assume that the commentator was referring to the skewness in the volatility process, which is characterized by the LogNormal distribution. But the forecasting tests referenced in the paper are tests of the ability of the model to predict the direction of volatility, i.e. the sign of the change in the level of volatility from the current period to the next period. Thus we are looking at, not a LogNormal distribution, but the difference in two LogNormal distributions with equal mean – and this, of course, has an expectation of zero. In other words, the expected level of volatility for the next period is the same as the current period and the expected change in the level of volatility is zero. You can test this very easily for yourself by generating a large number of observations from a LogNormal process, taking the difference and counting the number of positive and negative changes in the level of volatility from one period to the next. You will find, on average, half the time the change of direction is positive and half the time it is negative.  

For instance, the following chart shows the distribution of the number of positive changes in the level of a LogNormally distributed random variable with mean and standard deviation of 0.5, for a sample of 1,000 simulations, each of 10,000 observations.  The sample mean (5,000.4) is very close to the expected value of 5,000.

Distribution Number of Positive Direction Changes

So, a naive predictor will forecast volatility to remain unchanged for the next period and by random chance approximately half the time volatility will turn out to be higher and half the time it will turn out to be lower than in the current period. Hence the default probability estimate for a positive change of direction is 50% and you would expect to be right approximately half of the time. In other words, the direction prediction accuracy of the naive predictor is 50%. This, then, is one of the key benchmarks you use to assess the ability of the model to predict market direction. That is what test statistics like Theil’s-U does – measures the performance relative to the naive predictor. The other benchmark we use is the change of direction predicted by the implied volatility of ATM options.
In this context, the model’s 61% or higher direction prediction accuracy is very significant (at the 4% level in fact) and this is reflected in the Theil’s-U statistic of 0.82 (lower is better). By contrast, Theil’s-U for the Implied Volatility forecast is 1.46, meaning that IV is a much worse predictor of 1-period-ahead changes in volatility than the naive predictor.

On its face, it is because of this exceptional direction prediction accuracy that a simple strategy is able to generate what appear to be abnormal returns using the change of direction forecasts generated by the model, as described in the paper. In fact, the situation is more complicated than that, once you introduce the concept of a market price of volatility risk.

Modeling Asset Volatility

I am planning a series of posts on the subject of asset volatility and option pricing and thought I would begin with a survey of some of the central ideas. The attached presentation on Modeling Asset Volatility sets out the foundation for a number of key concepts and the basis for the research to follow.

Perhaps the most important feature of volatility is that it is stochastic rather than constant, as envisioned in the Black Scholes framework.  The presentation addresses this issue by identifying some of the chief stylized facts about volatility processes and how they can be modelled.  Certain characteristics of volatility are well known to most analysts, such as, for instance, its tendency to “cluster” in periods of higher and lower volatility.  However, there are many other typical features that are less often rehearsed and these too are examined in the presentation.

Long Memory
For example, while it is true that GARCH models do a fine job of modeling the clustering effect  they typically fail to capture one of the most important features of volatility processes – long term serial autocorrelation.  In the typical GARCH model autocorrelations die away approximately exponentially, and historical events are seen to have little influence on the behaviour of the process very far into the future.  In volatility processes that is typically not the case, however:  autocorrelations die away very slowly and historical events may continue to affect the process many weeks, months or even years ahead. 

Volatility Direction Prediction Accuracy

There are two immediate and very important consequences of this feature.  The first is that volatility processes will tend to trend over long periods – a characteristic of Black Noise or Fractionally Integrated processes, compared to the White Noise behavior that typically characterizes asset return processes.  Secondly, and again in contrast with asset return processes, volatility processes are inherently predictable, being conditioned to a significant degree on past behavior.  The presentation considers the fractional integration frameworks as a basis for modeling and forecasting volatility.

Mean Reversion vs. Momentum
A puzzling feature of much of the literature on volatility is that it tends to stress the mean-reverting behavior of volatility processes.  This appears to contradict the finding that volatility behaves as a reinforcing process, whose long-term serial autocorrelations create a tendency to trend.  This leads to one of the most important findings about asset processes in general, and volatility process in particular: i.e. that the assets processes are simultaneously trending and mean-reverting.  One way to understand this is to think of volatility, not as a single process, but as the superposition of two processes:  a long term process in the mean, which tends to reinforce and trend, around which there operates a second, transient process that has a tendency to produce short term spikes in volatility that decay very quickly.  In other words, a transient, mean reverting processes inter-linked with a momentum process in the mean.  The presentation discusses two-factor modeling concepts along these lines, and about which I will have more to say later.

Cointegration
One of the most striking developments in econometrics over the last thirty years, cointegration is now a principal weapon of choice routinely used by quantitative analysts to address research issues ranging from statistical arbitrage to portfolio construction and asset allocation.  Back in the late 1990′s I and a handful of other researchers realized that volatility processes exhibited very powerful cointegration tendencies that could be harnessed to create long-short volatility strategies, mirroring the approach much beloved by equity hedge fund managers.  In fact, this modeling technique provided the basis for the Caissa Capital volatility fund, which I founded in 2002.  The presentation examines characteristics of multivariate volatility processes and some of the ideas that have been proposed to model them, such as FIGARCH (fractionally-integrated GARCH).

Dispersion Dynamics
Finally, one topic that is not considered in the presentation, but on which I have spent much research effort in recent years, is the behavior of cross-sectional volatility processes, which I like to term dispersion.  It turns out that, like its univariate cousin, dispersion displays certain characteristics that in principle make it highly forecastable.  Given an appropriate model of dispersion dynamics, the question then becomes how to monetize efficiently the insight that such a model offers.  Again, I will have much more to say on this subject, in future.

Forecasting Volatility in the S&P500 Index

Several people have asked me for copies of this reserach article, which develops a new theoretical framework, the ARFIMA-GARCH model as a basis for forecasting volatility in the S&P 500 Index.  I am in the process of updating the research, but in the meantime a copy of the original paper is available here

Forecast vs Actual Realized Volatility

In this analysis we are concerned with the issue of whether market forecasts of volatility, as expressed in the Black-Scholes implied volatilities of at-the-money European options on the S&P500 Index, are superior to those produced by a new forecasting model in the GARCH framework which incorporates long-memory effects.  The ARFIMA-GARCH model, which uses high frequency data comprising 5-minute returns, makes volatility the subject process of interest, to which innovations are introduced via a volatility-of-volatility (kurtosis) process.  Despite performing robustly in- and out-of-sample, an encompassing regression indicates that the model is unable to add to the information already contained in market forecasts.  However, unlike model forecasts, implied volatility forecasts show evidence of a consistent and substantial bias.  Furthermore, the model is able to correctly predict the direction of volatility approximately 62% of the time whereas market forecasts have very poor direction prediction ability.  This suggests that either option markets may be inefficient, or that the option pricing model is mis-specified.  To examine this hypothesis, an empirical test is carried out in which at-the-money straddles are bought or sold (and delta-hedged) depending on whether the model forecasts exceed or fall below implied volatility forecasts.  This simple strategy generates an annual compound return of 18.64% over a four year out-of-sample period, during which the annual return on the S&P index itself was -7.24%.  Our findings suggest that, over the period of analysis, investors required an additional risk premium of 88 basis points of incremental return for each unit of volatility risk.